Implementing Hadamard Matrices in SageMath

29 Jun 2023  ·  Matteo Cati, Dmitrii V. Pasechnik ·

Hadamard matrices are $(-1, +1)$ square matrices with mutually orthogonal rows. The Hadamard conjecture states that Hadamard matrices of order $n$ exist whenever $n$ is $1$, $2$, or a multiple of $4$. However, no construction is known that works for all values of $n$, and for some orders no Hadamard matrix has yet been found. Given the many practical applications of these matrices, it would be useful to have a way to easily check if a construction for a Hadamard matrix of order $n$ exists, and in case to create it. This project aimed to address this, by implementing constructions of Hadamard and skew Hadamard matrices to cover all known orders less than or equal to $1000$ in SageMath, an open-source mathematical software. Furthermore, we implemented some additional mathematical objects, such as complementary difference sets and T-sequences, which were not present in SageMath but are needed to construct Hadamard matrices. This also allows to verify the correctness of the results given in the literature; within the $n\leq 1000$ range, just one order, $292$, of a skew Hadamard matrix claimed to have a known construction, required a fix.

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