Let $q\ge2$ be an integer, $\{X_n\}_{n\geq 1}$ a stochastic process with state space $\{0,\ldots,q-1\}$, and $F$ the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty X_n q^{-n}$. We show that stationarity of $\{X_n\}_{n\geq 1}$ is equivalent to a functional equation obeyed by $F$ and use this to characterize the characteristic function of $X$ and the structure of $F$ in terms of its Lebesgue decomposition... More precisely, while the absolutely continuous component of $F$ can only be the uniform distribution on the unit interval, its discrete component can only be a countable convex combination of certain explicitly computable CDFs for probability distributions with finite support. We also show that $\mathrm{d} F$ is a Rajchman measure if and only if $F $ is the uniform CDF on $[0,1]$. read more

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Probability
60G10 (Primary), 60G30 (secondary)