Statistics of the First Galois Cohomology Group: A Refinement of Malle's Conjecture

19 Feb 2020  ·  Alberts Brandon ·

Malle proposed a conjecture for counting the number of $G$-extensions $L/K$ with discriminant bounded above by $X$, denoted $N(K,G;X)$, where $G$ is a fixed transitive subgroup $G\subset S_n$ and $X$ tends towards infinity. We introduce a refinement of Malle's conjecture, if $G$ is a group with a nontrivial Galois action then we consider the set of crossed homomorphisms in $Z^1(K,G)$ (or equivalently $1$-coclasses in $H^1(K,G)$) with bounded discriminant... This has a natural interpretation given by counting $G$-extensions $F/L$ for some fixed $L$ and prescribed extension class $F/L/K$. If $T$ is an abelian group with any Galois action, we compute the asymptotic main term of this refined counting function for $Z^1(K,T)$ (and equivalently for $H^1(K,T)$) and show that it is a natural generalization of Malle's conjecture. The proof technique is in essence an application of a theorem of Wiles on generalized Selmer groups, and additionally gives the asymptotic main term when restricted to certain local behaviors. As a consequence, whenever the inverse Galois problem is solved for $G\subset S_n$ over $K$ and $G$ has an abelian normal subgroup $T\trianglelefteq G$ we prove a nontrivial lower bound for $N(K,G;X)$ given by a nonzero power of $X$ times a power of $\log X$. For many groups, including many solvable groups, these are the first known nontrivial lower bounds. These bounds prove Malle's predicted lower bounds for a large family of groups, and for an infinite subfamily they generalize Kl\"uners' counter example to Malle's conjecture and verify the corrected lower bounds predicted by Turkelli. read more

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Number Theory