Singquandles, Psyquandles and Singular Knots: A Survey

9 Mar 2021  ·  Jose Ceniceros, Indu R. Churchill, Mohamed Elhamdadi, Mustafa Hajij ·

In this short survey we review recent results dealing with algebraic structures (quandles, psyquandles, and singquandles) related to singular knot theory. We first explore the singquandles counting invariant and then consider several recent enhancements to this invariant... These enhancements include a singquandle cocycle invariant and several polynomial invariants of singular knots obtained from the singquandle structure. We then explore psyquandles which can be thought of as generalizations of oriented signquandles, and review recent developments regarding invariants of singular knots obtained from psyquandles. read more

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Geometric Topology