We derive explicit upper bounds for various functions counting primes in arithmetic progressions. By way of example, if $q$ and $a$ are integers with $\gcd(a,q)=1$ and $3 \leq q \leq 10^5$, and $\theta(x;q,a)$ denotes the sum of the logarithms of the primes $p \equiv a \pmod{q}$ with $p \leq x$, we show that $$ \bigg| \theta (x; q, a) - \frac{x}{\phi (q)} \bigg| < \frac1{160} \frac{x}{\log x}, $$ for all $x \ge 8 \cdot 10^9$ (with sharper constants obtained for individual such moduli $q$)... (read more)

PDF- NUMBER THEORY